Excellent color fastness with Vat coloring agents

The Vat colorants take their name from a wooden tub or vat (meaning ‘Vessel’) in which the process of reduction was first performed. A special dye bath is used wherein the colorant is applied on the fabric by reducing it to a soluble form. The reduction process is performed by adding a strong reducing agent.Vat DyeIt is important to add some reducing agent such as hydro sulphite because according to the basic nature, vat colorants are insoluble in water and cannot be applied directly. Therefore, they must be solubilized before use. Before, we move further to explore the properties of these coloring agents let’s take a look on the process in which insoluble form of water is converted into soluble form.

To solubilize Vat dye, the blend of chemicals ‘sodium hydroxide’ (such as caustic soda, or lye) and ‘sodium dithionite’ (also known as sodium hydrosulfite, which is used as a reducing agent) is used.

This is the foremost step involved in dying, using vat agents and is called ‘batting’. The fabric is dipped into this leuco form. After the dye is absorbed by the fiber, the soluble form is converted into pigment through oxidation. For this, the fabric is taken out from the bath and oxidized.

As a final step, the textile is passed through a special treatment called “soaping”. In soap treatment, the dyed fabric is boiled in a mixture of weakly alkaline liquor and detergent. The goal of this treatment is to remove pigment particles in order to give the material, a final shade with color fastness.


These dyes can be classified based on their application conditions, which can be one of the following:

  • IN (Bayer classification)  or CI (Ciba classification) dyes (Hot)
  • IW or CII dyes (Warm)
  • IK or CIII dyes (Cold)
  • IN special dyes

General properties:

  • Vat agents are used for coloring and printing materials like wool and cotton.
  • They are insoluble in water and need to pass through a special process, called reduction, in order to convert dyestuff into its leuco-form.
  • Diversity of color shades can be produced.
  • All classes that come under Vat coloring agents have different light fastness properties. Higher rate of light fatness is 7 and lower rate is 5 (which is better than light fatness properties of other dyes) on the rasssssste of 8.

How zinc borate is effectual in different applications?

Zinc borate, also known to be borate of zinc is an inorganic compound. The material comes in white crystalline color or in form of amorphous powder that is unsolvable in water. Moreover, the compound’s toxicity is usually low and has a melting point of about 980 °C.

The product has a great application use but most primarily, it is used as flame retardant in plastics or in cellulose fibers, smoke suppressant, rubbers, paper, and textiles. Moreover, the product is widely used in adhesives, paints formulation, pigments and various other chemical manufacturing processes.

Undoubtedly, the product has many uses that are discussed below-

The first and foremost benefit of the product is that it helps at the time of fire occurrence. We all are aware of the fact that when fire usually occurs, it spreads and causes severe loss to the life and property. Many people at that time either consider taking help of fire fighters who try to control fire and suppress it with variety of methods or make use of fire extinguishers. However, they are unaware of the chemical that is known for its unique properties that is ZB. The product is widely used in various equipment that is used for retarding the flame and for suppression of smoke.

Other than this, due to its chemical working and properties of the compound, the chemical is mostly used as a fungicide, preservative, corrosion inhibitor and much more.

Being complex in nature, several industries use this compound for variety of purposes according to their requirement. Like for instance-

  • It is used as a fire retardant in Elastomers, PVC, Epoxy Resins, Polyolefin, and Polyamides.
  • Moreover, many people are unaware of the fact that this product is anti-dripping.
  • The product when used in electric insulators, it easily holds back arcing.
  • Other than this, in the area of manufacturing, it is used for manufacturing paper, fiber fabric, floor leather, or decorative boards.
  • The best property of this chemical is that because of its capability to retard, that means it can be used in vinyl chloride latex formulations.

It is a special compound in itself. However, one needs to handle the chemical carefully when making use in different applications. In addition, special precautions should be taken such as use of security goggles, face shield, protective gloves.

Is it essential to mix ratios for epoxy coatings?

Yes it is! When mixing ratios, it is important for epoxy coatings. Many times, it is seen that the contractors usually commit mistake while mixing two of components of epoxy coatings. This leads to some of the very common problems that mentions below-

  • Either no or soft cure
  • high exothermic reaction leads to shrinkage

The components mixed are used for determining quantity of hardener for epoxy curing agent that is required to achieve a full cure of epoxy coating. Weight, volume, or PHR (parts per hundred) expresses the mixed ratios. If the density of resin and catalyst will vary then automatically the ratio of weight and volume will differ.

Many people usually mix resin and hardener by weight but it is recommended to merge it by volume as suggested by companies. It is very important to note that if you change the ratio by volume then it will be changed according to temperature and pressure where as the weight will not change according to temperature and pressure.

Following are some of the ways to mix two components of epoxy coatings-

When you are mixing, make sure that you do not mix resin in excess at the same time due to the viscosity that will make it difficult for the mixture to stir. Moreover, the pot life of the mixture will tend to decrease due to the exothermic reaction formed at that time.

It is advisable to dispense the epoxy resin and the hardener in either plastic or metal containers and avoid using glass or foam containers. This is because when heat is produced during the reaction will make the container softer or will be make it too hot to handle it. This will further be risky to hold the container, as there are chances of breaking glass containers. Therefore, metal or plastic containers are recommended for this use. This will further allow speeding up the mixing process.

During the process, hardeners usually have the tendency to settle easily. Therefore, if you will not mix it prior to be used as a catalyst, then rich mixture might occur.

During dispensing, the hardener as well as the resin is poured in two different containers and then poured in same container. It is advisable that you rub the container surface into the mixing container in order to get proper proportion of mixture.

What are the key benefits of reactive diluents?

Reactive diluents are used to decrease the stickiness of epoxy resins to get improved and effortlessness handling when used in various applications. In other words it is used to get optimized performance properties like filler-loading, impact strength, flexibility, adhesion, and solvent resistance. These diluents are used in applications like for civil engineering purposes, coatings and paints, composites, electro, adhesives etc.

Diluents are preferred because when diluents mixed with polymer matrix reduce volatile organic compounds. It is basically used in commercial use and is worldwide in demand.

Other field of area where these diluents are-

  • Are used to prepare paint that is solvent free
  • Used to varnish compounds
  • When combined with other polymers improves adhesion and stabilization

One of the categories of reactive diluents is Epotec that are epoxy groups that consist of functional products. It is used to lower the stickiness OF glycidyl ethers which when react with curing agents become the element of cross-linked epoxy system.

They are further divided into three forms

  • Aliphatic
  • Aromatic
  • Cycloaliphatic

Based on their functionality, they are further grouped as-

  • Mono-functional
  • Di-functional
  • Tri-functional

Some of the advantages of reactive type of diluents are-

  • Stickiness of epoxy resins that contains high molecular weight is easily reduced.
  • With the help of it, it is easy to retain the mechanical as well as the chemical resistance of cured state properties.
  • These diluents consist of low vapor pressure in contrast to other chemicals.
  • It is compatible with bis – phenol A, bis – phenol F & Phenolic epoxies
  • Low viscosity and flexibility
  • Resistant to chemical & water
  • Low volatile organic compounds product can be prepared
  • Uphold electrical properties

When diluents are combined with resins, it produces the following benefits-

  • Without increasing volatiles, stickiness can be reduced
  • cost is reduced due to the higher filler loadings of both chemicals
  • It also consists of lower co-efficient of expansion, lower exothermic, higher compressive power and lower reduction properties.
  • Life of resin hardener is increased.

If you are working in any commercial area where the requirement of these diluents is must then you should definitely acquire this chemical to get more effective results.

But if you are new to the use of these chemicals or are unaware that in how many ways the chemical can be used and prove helpful for your business, then research well about it before hand.

It will help you gain more knowledge and will be able to get an idea of how to find the best diluents producers. In addition, it is advisable to compare the price and superiority of the product before buying it.

Which are the many applications of Zinc borate?

There are different kinds of chemicals used in many industries during the manufacturing and post manufacturing chores of all kinds of products and commodities.

Because you will have to choose from two or more chemicals or final products, and you also have to make an informed decision, it is essential that you have ample knowledge about the utility of the particular chemical.

In addition, a single chemical may have more than one purpose; therefore depending on the list of available tasks you have, choosing the right one will prove to be more cost effective.

Zinc Borate: This chemical is utilized in more ways than one. It is used in many sectors in different industries, in many ways and at many levels.

A brief account of the ways in which it is used will help you understand its importance, and how you can make use of it.

Zinc Borate is an inorganic compound.  This white crystalline chemical has low toxicity.

It is the first choice for fire retardant in manufacturing polyolefin wire & cables and for other electrical parts. Along with antimony oxide, it is used in halogen containing systems and with alumina trihydrate.

In flexible PVC, it is used as a substitute to antimony oxide like wires, cables, roofing membranes, auto upholstery, wall coverings carpet backing, auto upholstery and more.

Because of its flame retardant properties and it’s improve resistance against electrical degradation, it is used with different chemical compositions.

For example, with brominated flame retardants, it acts as a synergist to tailor CTI and FR properties.

Such combinations are used to increase melt stability and can be used in regrinding processes without a reduction in the original CTI values.

Zinc Borate is a flame retardant synergist as far as halogen sources such as; decabromodiphenyl oxide and tetrabromobisphenol-A. It could be used in place of antimony oxide in varying degrees. It is also used in epoxies for applications such as; glass-reinforcement laminates, encapsulation of electrical components etc.

Such qualities have led to its wide usage as a flame retardant in paper, textile, rubber, plastics and other industries during the production stage of these products.

It is also used in industries related to ceramic, adhesives, pigments, and paints.

It also has good antifungal properties and has proved to be an important antifungal agent. For this reason, it is an effective tool used to improve the life of a plant.

Zinc Borate is available not just in one form, but in different variants; so you should perform an extensive research before choosing the right variant for you.

Which chemical is mostly used in health care industry?

Numerous chemicals are there in market like colorants, mordants, dyes, and solvents, which has different purpose to serve.

Amongst all these, benzene is most commonly used chemical, which subsequently makes it an in-demand compound of the health care industry. Apart from its use in health application, it is commonly used for other purposes as well.

Here are few other applications of benzyl alcohol:

Bacteriostatic agent: This chemical has bacteriostatic properties, due to which it has become one of the most commonly used solvents in health industry. The word bacteriostatic meansthat it helps limit the growth of micro-organisms. However, its usageis restricted because of the stringent guidelines formulated by the health agencies as higher concentrations can cause serious health issues.

Treatment of head lice: Another commonly used application of this compound is to get rid of head lice. As per the guidelines provided by U.S. FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration), 5% solution of this compound is used in the solution of head lice, which causes to asphyxiate (shortening of oxygen for the insect).

Use in nanotechnology: This organic agent has also been utilized in nanotechnology industryas a dielectric solvent.This is because it is quite useful for the dielectrophoretic reconfiguration of nanowires.

Other applications: Besides the above applications of benzene derivative, this solvent is also used for making color concentrate as well. A common use of benzene is also in the perfume industry. In the quartz industry also, this chemical is used that helps ensure the quality of quartz because of the fact that both quartz and b.alcohol have same refractive index.

All the above mentioned applications clearly signify the importance of this organic agent benzene in various commercial applications.

So, if you are dealing with any of the above mentioned industry then you must be requiring benzene chemical. However, to get the purest form of this solution, you need to make sure about the chemical provider; after all, he is the one who would provide you good quality organic agent.

However, if you are in search of good chemical provider, you must take into account few factors, which are essential to be there in a manufacturer. To name a few of those factors are reputation, experience, credibility and supply of diverse range of quality chemicals.

Types and Important Features of Epoxy Resin

Epoxy resin or polyepoxide is a class of reactive polymers and prepolymers that consists of groups of epoxide. These groups are called as oxirane or glycidyl Epoxy resins either may be cross-linked or may react with other co-reactants that include polyfunctional amines, thiols acids, phenols, and alcohol. These co-reactants are termed as the curatives or the hardeners.

Epoxy resin manufacturer are more into profit these days due to its wide use in commercial areas. Some people may not aware of this product, apparently it is quite essential for the use in many applications. Due to its quality features, several industries use them. Its properties include adhesive, resistance to water and chemicals.

However, in order to get the best quality of epoxy resins product, it is required to search for a manufacturer that is reputed. If not, then search online as you can get ample of options to see.

There are many industries that make use of these this product like in dentistry, metal coatings, boat building, high-tension electrical insulators, fiber optics and civil engineering, and many other areas of applications. Mostly epoxy resins are used for commercial use rather than home use.

Different epoxy products includes-

Curing agents– the best feature of curing agents is that it is capable of enhancing the reactivity, working time, and the viscosity of the resins. Therefore, it is highly important to select the right epoxy resin as all above features depends on the quality of resin used.

Reactive diluents– other product that comes in the category of epoxy resins are reactive diluents that diminish the viscosity of the base resin in order to get better handling and ease in various applications. Reactive diluent gives optimized performance like adhesion, filler-loading, flexibility, and is resistant to solvent.

Liquid epoxy resins– for the use in coatings as well as civil engineering applications, liquid epoxy resins are broadly used.

Solid epoxy resins– on other hand, solid epoxy resins are best to make use general-purpose powder coatings and related applications

Features of epoxy resins include-

  • Used for coatings on other equipment.
  • Resistant to chemical and water as used in marine applications
  • Used for flooring, powder coatings, pipes, electronic applications etc.
  • Other application area includes aerospace, art, biology, electronics, paining, adhesives, water tightening, shrinkage, and many more.
  • It is also resistant to corrosion.